Aquaculture is the farming of any plant or animal that lives in water. This can be either in seawater, brackish water, or freshwater – on land or in the oceans, lakes or rivers.

Aquaculture is an agribusiness just as dairy farming or the arable crop farming of maize are. However, unlike the latter two, in general the former is a less developed business type. As such there can be big gaps in our knowledge. 

This lack of technical knowledge and experience in farming a specific aquaculture species often leads to uncertainty and risk for the business operator. Furthermore, markets for species may be undeveloped requiring volume, product form and price assumptions to be drawn from very little useful information.

General Aquaculture Info:

There are also specialist branches of aquaculture that produce plants and sometimes sponges that contain compounds that are used in other materials. Examples are;

The New Zealand Ministry for Primary Industry (MPI) has a range of information on aquaculture in general and land based aquaculture.

Aquaculture risk management options

Land based aquaculture covers those ventures that are farming aquatic organisms on land – not in the ocean.  Of the gazetted species, only two (paua and salmon), are being farmed successfully, in New Zealand, in large scale land based facilities. Salmon, however, generally only completes hatchery and early growout stages on land. Smaller hatchery facilities for oysters (flats and pacifics) and mussels also exist. Other small land based operations are working with a range of species (freshwater prawns, eels, koura, brine shrimp, whitebait and crayfish) at research or pilot scale developments.

Just as in agriculture there are a diversity of species and farming systems from extensive high country sheep and cattle production to intensive chicken culture - there are different aquaculture production systems each best suited to a particular set of species, site specific and geographic conditions. 

Aquaculture rearing systems can be generally divided into:

Intensive culture systems can be divided further into:

Integrated culture systems can be both extensive or intensive.

Aquaculture methods - European Commission Fisheries

The basic steps to establishing an aquaculture venture are summarised here. 

To be successful in aquaculture it’s important that you understand the seafood market and how your production will fit in the domestic and global marketplace.  You must choose the right species, choose the right technology, and meet government, environmental and community requirements. You must plan well ahead for future changes and the risks that aquaculture presents.

Plan ahead or live the nightmare the Taiwanese land based aquaculture experience

Plan ahead or live the nightmare – the Taiwanese land based aquaculture experience (C Searle, Sashimi Group)




Sashimi Group